a

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a
Dhātu:
Dhātupāṭha:

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Pratyaya:


 a [ a ]  


1. the first letter of the alphabet

the first short vowel inherent in consonants.




a-kāra [ akAra ]  

m. the letter or sound a.



 a [ a ]  

2. ( pragṛhya, q.v. ), a vocative particle [ a Ananta, O Viṣṇu ], T.

interjection of pity, Ah!



 a [ a ]  

3. ( before a vowel an, exc. a-ṛṇin ), a prefix corresponding to Gk. ?, ?, Lat. in, Goth. and Germ. un, Eng. in or un, and having a negative or privative or contrary sense ( an-eka not one ; an-anta endless ; a-sat not good ; a-paśyat not seeing )

rarely prefixed to Inf. ( a-svaptum not to sleep, TāṇḍyaBr. ) and even to forms of the finite verb ( a-spṛhayanti they do not desire, BhP. Śiś. ) and to pronouns ( a-saḥ not he, Śiś. ; a-tad not that, BhP. )

occasionally denoting comparison ( a-brāhmaṇa like a Brahman, T. )

sometimes disparagement ( a-yajña a miserable sacrifice )

sometimes diminutiveness ( cf. á-karṇa, an-udarā )

rarely an expletive ( cf. a-kupya, a-pūpa ).

According to Pāṇ. vi, 2, 161, the accent may be optionally either on the first or last syllable in certain compounds formed with a ( as á-tīkṣṇa or a-tīkṣṇá, á-śuci or a-śucí, án-anna or an-anná ); the same applies to stems ending in tṛ accentuated on the first syllable before a is prefixed; cf. also á-tūrta and a-tū'rta, á-bhinna and a-bhinná, etc.



 a [ a ]  

4. the base of some pronouns and pronom. forms, in asya, atra, etc.



 a [ a ]  

5. the augment prefixed to the root in the formation of the imperfect, aorist, and conditional tenses ( in the Veda often wanting, as in Homer, the fact being that originally the augment was only prefixed in principal sentences where it was accentuated, whilst it was dropped in subordinate sentences where the root-vowel took the accent ).



 a [ a ]  

6. as, m., N. of Viṣṇu, L. ( especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable om ).