ca

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ca
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 ca [ ca ]


1. the 20th letter of the alphabet, 1st of the 2nd ( or palatal ) class of consonants, having the sound of ch in church.




ca-kāra [ cakAra ]

1. m. the letter or sound ca.



 ca [ ca ]

2. ind. and, both, also, moreover, as well as ( = τε, Lat. que, placed like these particles as an enclitic after the word which it connects with what precedes

when used with a personal pronoun this must appear in its fuller accented form ( e.g. táva ca máma ca [ not te ca me ca ], ' both of thee and me ' ), when used after verbs the first of them is accented, Pāṇ. viii, 1, 58 f.

it connects whole sentences as well as parts of sentences

in RV. the double ca occurs more frequently than the single ( e.g. aháṃ ca tváṃ ca, ' I and thou ', viii, 62, 11 )

the double ca may also be used somewhat redundantly in class. Sanskṛt ( e.g. kva hariṇakānāṃ jīvitaṃ câtilolaṃ kva ca vajra-sārāḥ śarās te, ' where is the frail existence of fawns and where are thy adamantine arrows ? ' Śak. i, 10 )

in later literature, however, the first ca is more usually omitted ( e.g. ahaṃ tvaṃ ca ), and when more than two things are enumerated only one ca is often found ( e.g. tejasā yaśasā lakṣmyā sthityā ca parayā, ' in glory, in fame, in beauty, and in high position, ' Nal. xii, 6 )

elsewhere, when more than two things are enumerated, ca is placed after some and omitted after others ( e.g. ṛṇa-dātā ca vaidyaś ca śrotriyo nadī, ' the payer of a debt and a physician [ and ] a Brāhman [ and ] a river, ' Hit. i, 4, 55 )

in Ved. and even in class. Sanskṛt [ Mn. iii, 20; ix, 322, Hit. ], when the double ca would generally be used, the second may occasionally be omitted ( e.g. I'ndraś ca Soma, ' both Indra [ and thou ] Soma, ' RV. vii, 104, 25; durbhedyaś câ`śusaṃdheyaḥ, ' both difficult to be divided [ and ] quickly united, ' Hit. i )

with lexicographers ca may imply a reference to certain other words which are not expressed ( e.g. kamaṇḍalau ca karakaḥ, ' the word karaka has the meaning ' pitcher ' and other meanings ' )

sometimes ca is = eva, even, indeed, certainly, just ( e.g. su-cintitaṃ ca^uṣadhaṃ na nāma-mātreṇa karoty arogam, ' even a well-devised remedy does not cure a disease by its mere name, ' Hit. yāvanta eva te tāvānśca saḥ, ' as great as they [ were ] just so great was he, ' Ragh. xii, 45 )

occasionally ca is disjunctive, ' but, ' ' on the contrary, ' ' on the other hand, ' ' yet, ' ' nevertheless ' ( varam ādyau na cântimaḥ, ' better the two first but not the last, ' Hit. śāntam idam āśrama-padaṃ sphurati ca bāhuḥ, ' this hermitage is tranquil yet my arm throbs, ' Śak. i, 15 )

ca - ca, though - yet, Vikr. ii, 9

ca - na ca, though - yet not, Pat.

ca - na tu ( v.l. nanu ), id., Mālav. iv, 8

na ca - ca, though not - yet, Pat.

ca may be used for , ' either, ' ' or ' ( e.g. iha câmutra vā, ' either here or hereafter, ' Mn. xii, 89; strī vā pumān vā yac cânyat sattvam, ' either a woman or a man or any other being, ' R. ), and when a neg. particle is joined with ca the two may then be translated by ' neither, ' ' nor '

occasionally one ca or one na is omitted ( e.g. na ca paribhoktuṃ na^iva śaknomi hātum, ' I am able neither to enjoy nor to abandon, ' Śak. v, 18; na pūrvâhṇe na ca parâhṇe, ' neither in the forenoon nor in the afternoon ' )

ca - ca may express immediate connection between two acts or their simultaneous occurrence ( e.g. mama ca muktaṃ tamasā mano manasijena dhanuṣi śaraś ca niveśitaḥ, ' no sooner is my mind freed from darkness than a shaft is fixed on his bow by the heart-born god, ' vi, 8 )

ca is sometimes = cêd, ' if ' ( cf. Pāṇ. viii, 1, 30, the verb is accented ), RV., AV., MBh., Vikr. ii, 20, Bhartṛ. ii, 45

ca may be used as an expletive ( e.g. anyaiś ca kratubhiś ca, ' and with other sacrifices ' )

ca is often joined to an adv. like eva, api, tathā, tatha^iva, etc., either with or without a neg. particle ( e.g. vairiṇaṃ nôpaseveta sahâyaṃ caiva vairiṇaḥ, ' one ought not to serve either an enemy or the ally of an enemy, ' Mn. iv, 133 ); ( see eva, api, etc. ) For the meaning of ca after an interrogative see 2. , 2. kathā, kím, kvà ) ; [ cf. τε, Lat. que, pe ( in nempe etc. ) ; Goth. uh ; Zd. ca ; Old Pers. . ]



ca-kāra [ cakAra ]

2. m. the particle ca, Pāṇ. ii, 3, 72, Kāś.



ca-samāsa [ casamAsa ]

m. a Dvandva compound, Vop., Sch.



câdi [ cAdi ]

a Gaṇa of Pāṇ. ( including the indeclinable particles, i, 4, 57 ).



 ca [ ca ]

3. mfn. pure, L.

moving to and fro, L.

mischievous, L.

seedless, L.

m. a thief, L.

the moon, L.

a tortoise, L.

Śiva, L.