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 úpa [ upa ]

ind. ( a preposition or prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing ) towards, near to ( opposed to apa, away ), by the side of, with, together with, under, down ( e.g. upa-gam, to go near, undergo; upa-gamana, approaching; in the Veda the verb has sometimes to be supplied from the context, and sometimes upa is placed after the verb to which it belongs, e.g. āyayur upa = upâyayuḥ, they approached).

( As unconnected with verbs and prefixed to nouns upa expresses ) direction towards, nearness, contiguity in space, time, number, degree, resemblance, and relationship, but with the idea of subordination and inferiority ( e.g. upa-kaniṣṭhikā, the finger next to the little finger; upa-purāṇam, a secondary or subordinate Purāṇa; upa-daśa, nearly ten ); sometimes forming with the nouns to which it is prefixed compound adverbs ( e.g. upa-mūlam, at the root; upa-pūrva-rātram, towards the beginning of night; upa-kūpe, near a well ) which lose their adverbial terminations if they are again compounded with nouns ( e.g. upakūpa-jalâśaya, a reservoir in the neighbourhood of a well ); prefixed to proper names upa may express in classical literature ' a younger brother ' ( e.g. upêndra, ' the younger brother of Indra ' ), and in Buddhist literature ' a son. '

( As a separable adverb upa rarely expresses ) thereto, further, moreover ( e.g. tatrôpa brahma yo veda, who further knows the Brahman ), RV. AV. ŚBr. PārGṛ.

( As a separable preposition ) near to, towards, in the direction of, under, below ( with acc., e.g. upa āśāḥ, towards the regions ); near to, at, on, upon; at the time of, upon, up to, in, above ( with loc., e.g. upa sānuṣu, on the tops of the mountains ); with, together with, at the same time with, according to ( with inst., e.g. upa dharmabhiḥ, according to the rules of duty ), RV. AV. ŚBr.

Upa, besides the meanings given above, is said by native authorities to imply disease, extinction; ornament; command; reproof; undertaking; giving; killing; diffusing; wish; power; effort; resemblance, etc. ; [ cf. Zd. upa; Gk. ὑπό ; Lat. sub; Goth. uf ; Old Germ. oba ; Mod. Germ. ob in Obdach, obliegen, etc. ]