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 yád [ yad ]

( nom. and acc. sg. n. and base in comp. of 3. ya ), who, which, what, whichever, whatever, that, RV. etc. ( with correlatives tad, tyad, etad, idam, adas, tad etad, etad tyad, idaṃ tad, tad idam, tādṛśa , īdṛśa, īdṛś, etāvad, by which it is oftener followed than preceded

or the correl. is dropped, e.g. yas tu nâ`rabhate karma kṣipram bhavati nirdravyaḥ, ' [he] indeed who does not begin work soon becomes poor, ' R.

or the rel. is dropped, e.g. andhakam bhartāraṃ na tyajet sā mahā-satī, ' she who does not desert a blind husband is a very faithful wife ' cf. Vet. yad is often repeated to express ' whoever ', ' whatever ', ' whichever ', e.g. yo yaḥ, ' whatever man '

yā yā, ' whatever woman

yo yaj jayati tasya tat, ' whatever he wins in war belongs to him ' cf. Mn. vii, 96

yad yad vadati tad tad bhavati, ' whatever he says is true ' , or the two relatives may be separated by hi, and are followed by the doubled or single correl. tad e.g. upyate yad dhi yad bījam tat tad eva prarohati, ' whatever seed is sown, that even comes forth ' cf. Mn. ix, 40

similar indefinite meanings are expressed by the relative joined with tad e.g. yasmai tasmai, ' to any one whatever ', esp. in yadvā tadvā, ' anything whatever '

or by yaḥ with kaśca, kaścana, kaścit, or [ in later language, not in Manu ] ko'pi e.g. yaḥ kaścit, ' whosoever '

yāni kāni ca mitrāṇi, ' any friends whatsoever '

yena kenâpy upâyena, ' by any means whatsoever. ' yad is joined with tvad to express generalisation, e.g. śūdrāṃs tvad yāṃs tvad, ' either the Śūdras or anybody else ' cf. ŚBr.

or immediately followed by a pers. pron. on which it lays emphasis, e.g. yo 'ham, ' I that very person who '

yas tvaṃ kathaṃ vettha, ' how do you know ? ' cf. ŚBr.

it is also used in the sense of ' si quis ', e.g. striyaṃ spṛśed yaḥ, ' should any one touch a woman. ' yad is also used without the copula, e.g. andho jaḍaḥ pīṭha sarpī saptatyā sthaviraśca yaḥ, ' a blind man, an idiot, a cripple, and a man seventy years old ' cf. Mn. viii, 394

sometimes there is a change of construction in such cases, e.g. ye ca mānuṣāḥ for mānuṣāṃś-ca cf. Mn. x, 86

the nom. sg. n. yad is then often used without regard to gender or number and may be translated by ' as regards ', ' as for ' , e.g. kṣatraṃ vā etad vanaspatīnāṃ yan nyag-rodhaḥ, ' as for the Nyag-rodha, it is certainly the prince among trees ' cf. AitBr.

or by ' that is to say ', ' to wit ', e.g. tato devā etaṃ vajraṃ dadṛśur yad apaḥ, ' the gods then saw this thunderbolt, to wit, the water ' cf. ŚBr. yad as an adv. conjunction generally = ' that ', esp. after verbs of saying, thinking etc., often introducing an oratio directa with or without iti

iti yad, at the end of a sentence = ' thinking that ', ' under the impression that ', e.g. cf. Ratnâv. ii, 2/8. yad also = ' so that ', ' in order that ', ' wherefore ', ' whence ', ' as ' , ' in as much as ', ' since ', ' because ' [ the correlative being tad, ' therefore ' ], ' when ', ' if ' cf. RV. etc.

ádha yád, ' even if ', ' although ' cf. RV. yad api id. cf. Megh. yad u - evam, ' as - so ' cf. ŚvetUp.

yad uta, ' that ' cf. Bālar

' that is to say ', ' scilicet ' cf. Kāraṇḍ. cf. Divyâv

yat kila, ' that ' cf. Prasannar

yac ca, ' if ', ' that is to say ' cf. Car.

yac ca-yac ca, ' both - and ' cf. Divyâv

' that ' [ accord. to cf. Pāṇ. 3-3, 148 after expressions of ' impossibility ', ' disbelief ', ' hope ', ' disregard ', ' reproach ' and, wonder ' ]

yad vā, ' or else ', ' whether ' cf. Kāv. cf. Rājat

[ yad vā, ' or else ', is very often in commentators ]

' however ' cf. Bālar

yad vā - yadi vā, ' if- or it ' cf. Bhag.

yad bhūyasā, ' for the most part ' cf. Divyâv

yat satyam, ' certainly ', ' indeed ', ' of course ' cf. Mṛcch. cf. Ratnâv

yan nu, with 1st pers., ' what if I ', ' let me cf. Divyâv. )

m. = puruṣa cf. Tattvas

yád-anna [ yadanna ]

mfn. eating which food cf. R.

yád-abhāve [ yadabhAve ]

ind. in the absence or in default of which cf. MW.

yád-artha [ yadartha ]

mfn. having which object or intention cf. BhP.

( am, or e ), ind. on which account, for which purpose , wherefore, why cf. MBh. cf. Kāv. etc.

as, since, because, whereas cf. ib.

yád-avadhi [ yadavadhi ]

ind. since which time cf. Bhām.

yád-avasāna [ yadavasAna ]

mfn. terminating in which cf. Lāṭy

yád-aśana [ yadazana ]

mfn. = -anna cf. R.

yád-aśanīya [ yadazanIya ]

n. anything that may be eaten cf. ĀpGṛ.

yád-ātmaka [ yadAtmaka ]

mfn. having which essence or existence cf. BhP.

yád-ārṣeya [ yadArSeya ]

mfn. of which divine descent cf. L.

yád-ṛccha [ yadRccha ]

mf ( ā ) n. spontaneous, accidental cf. ĀpGṛ.

( ā ), f. self-will, spontaneity, accident, chance ( ibc. or ayā ind. spontaneously, by accident, unexpectedly ), ŚvetUP. cf. Mn. cf. MBh. etc.

( in gram. ), -śabda, below

-tas ind. by chance, accidentally cf. BhP.

-bhijña ( °cchâbh° ), m. a voluntary or self-offered witness cf. Nār

-mātra-tas ind. only quite by accident cf. Kathās

-lābha-saṃtuṣṭa mfn. satisfied with obtaining what comes spontaneously, easily satisfied cf. Bhag.

-śabada m. ' chance-word ', a word neither derived from authority nor possessing meaning cf. Śiś.

-saṃvāda m. accidental or spontaneous conversation cf. Uttarar

°cchika m. ( scil. putra ) a son who offers himself for adoption cf. MW.

yád-gotra [ yadgotra ]

mfn. belonging to which family cf. ChUp.

yád-devata [ yaddevata ]

( ŚrS. ) or ( cf. ŚBr. ), mfn. having which godhead or divinity

yád-devatyà [ yaddevatya ]

( cf. ŚBr. ), mfn. having which godhead or divinity

yád-dvaṃdva [ yaddvaMdva ]

n. N. of a Sāman cf. Lāṭy

yád-dhetos [ yaddhetos ]

( for -hetos ), ind. from which reason, on which account cf. BhP.

yád-bala [ yadbala ]

mfn. of which strength or power cf. MBh.

yád-bhaviṣya [ yadbhaviSya ]

mfn. one who says, what will be will be ', Fatalist ( N. of a fish ) cf. Hit.

yád-bhūyas [ yadbhUyas ]

( ibc. ) the greatest part ( °sā ind., col. 2 )

kārin mfn. doing anything for the most part cf. L.

yád-rūpa-vicāra [ yadrUpavicAra ]

m. N. of wk.

yád-vat [ yadvat ]

ind. in which way, as ( correlative of tad-vat and evam ) cf. MBh. cf. Kāv. etc.

yád-vada [ yadvada ]

mfn. talking anything, saying no matter what cf. L.

yád-vāhiṣṭhīya [ yadvAhiSThIya ]

n. ( fr. yad vāhiṣṭham, the first two words of cf. RV. v, 25, 7 ) N. of a Sāman cf. ĀrshBr. ( also agner-yadv° )

yád-vidha [ yadvidha ]

mfn. of which kind cf. R.

yád-vīrya [ yadvIrya ]

mfn. of which valour cf. MBh.

yád-vṛtta [ yadvRtta ]

n. anything that has occurred, event, adventure cf. Hariv. cf. Kathās

any form of yad cf. Pāṇ. 8-1, 66